Dr. Mark L. Schattenburg is
Senior Research Scientist in the MIT Kavli
Institute of Astrophysics and Space Research. He is Director of the
Space Nanotechnology Laboratory, Associate
Director of the NanoStructures Laboratory
and Senior Research Affiliate with the Microsystems
Technology Laboratories. His principal interests are in the area of
micro/nanofabrication technology, optical and x-ray interferometry, advanced
lithography including optical, x-ray, electron-beam and nano-imprint,
nano-metrology, x-ray optics and instrumentation, x-ray astronomy, high-resolution
x-ray spectroscopy and space physics instrumentation utilizing nanotechnology.
He has made numerous contributions to advanced lithography. He is co-inventor
of the attenuated (or halftone) phase-shift mask (PSM) that is licensed
to semiconductor manufacturers around the world and is the only PSM option
widely used for production of computer chips. He was a pioneer of x-ray
lithography (XRL) and responsible for a number of innovations, including
the first use of refractory metal absorbers, the "microgap"
x-ray mask and the flip-bonded x-ray mask. He was the first to demonstrate
the replication of sub-100 nm lines by XRL with out-of-contact masking.
He is also the co-inventor of spatial-phase-locked electron-beam lithography
(SPLEBL) which led to the world's most accurate electron-beam writer.
He is a leading expert on grating fabrication by interference lithography
and pioneered advanced homodyne and heterodyne fringe locking technology,
multi-level resist processing and achromatic interference lithography.
He is the inventor of scanning-beam interference lithography and developed
the "Nanoruler," the world's most precise grating patterning
Early in his career he worked in the Soft X-ray and Electron Spectroscopy
Laboratory of Prof. Burton L. Henke at the University of Hawaii. Later
he participated in the mission planning and operations, data reduction
and analysis for the MIT Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS)
on the Einstein Observatory (HEAO-2)
x-ray satellite, which performed high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy. During
this period he analyzed the spectrum of the Crab Nebula and discovered
the first reported interstellar x-ray absorption line.
He pioneered nanostructure fabrication technology for ten NASA missions
applied to advanced instrumentation in x-ray astronomy, solar physics
and Earth magnetospheric imaging. His group is responsible for the fabrication
of hundreds of nanometer-period transmission gratings for high-resolution
x-ray spectroscopy in the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer
(HETGS) on the Chandra
X-ray Observatory; gratings for Solar EUV spectroscopy on the
and Solar Dynamics Observatory
missions; and deep-UV nanofilters for atom cameras on the IMAGE
He is a member of the NASA Chandra Science and Instrument Development
Teams, the Constellation-X
Facility Science Team, the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission
(MAXIM) and Generation
X study teams. He is also a member of the Steering Committee of
the International Conference
on Electron, Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication, serving
as Program Chair in 2003.
Dr. Schattenburg has a B.S. degree in physics from the University of Hawaii
in 1978 and a Ph.D. in physics from MIT in 1984. He was appointed Postdoctoral
Associate at MIT in 1984, progressing to Senior Research Scientist in
2004. He has published over 140 papers and holds six patents. He is a
member of the Optical Society of America, the American
Vacuum Society, SPIE-The International
Society for Optical Engineering, the
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the
American Society for Precision Engineering. He was awarded the 2003
BACUS Prize by SPIE for the development of phase shift mask technology
and a R&D 100 award in 2004 for the invention of the Nanoruler.
Also, please check out the
web site of his grandfather, Dr.
Otto Lee Schattenburg.